This is data already summarized from the individual returns of the census, usually in the form of tables, presented in a compendium. As the data becomes more recent, the analaysis becomes more sophisticated and fragmented. Georgia County level data was extracted from the overall US census data.
These are the actual returns from the census marshals as they gathered the data, or as returned by individuals. The Census Bureau microfilmed the returns at various dates, and Internet Archive scanned and uploaded the microfilm by early 2010. The links on this page are only for Georgia and include all the microfilm from 1820 to 1930 that could be found on the Internet Archive database. 1890 returns for Georgia are missing because they were destroyed in a fire in 1921, and thus were never microfilmed. 1790 census for Georgia is believed to have been destroyed by the British burning of Washington, DC, during the War of 1812. I could not find returns for 1800 or 1810 for Georgia on the Internet Archive database, and do not know if they were ever microfilmed. So, 1790, 1800, 1810, and 1890 manuscript censuses are missing from this page of links. Please contact me if you find them.
These links are the returns from Gwinnett County census marshals extracted from the microfilm digitized by Internet Archive. Before 1870, the returns include slaves as well as free population. Currently these Adobe Acrobat files include data from the 1820 to 1860 censuses. As time allows, I will add later censuses.
This is a fairly complete archive (as far as I can tell) of all US Population and Housing schedules, dating to the first census in 1790.
An excellent tool for quick data runs. Once you learn to use it, you may search data down to the county level for all censuses from 1790-1960.
Very nicely done archive by USDA of agricultural data from 1840-2007, starting in 1920 with a new census approximately every 5 years. Each of the USDA censuses after 1920 usually includes data from several previous censuses.
This website tends to move around somewhat frequently. I have found manufacturing and business data as far back as the 1920s in previous iterations, but “improvements” in the websites have made it difficult to find anything but the most recent economic data.